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|Rankings||Speech-Language Pathology Programs|
|1||University of Arizona
Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences
Address: PO Box 210071, Tucson, AZ 85721-0071
Phone: (520) 621-1644
|2||Arizona State University
Department of Speech and Hearing Science
Address: PO Box 870102, Tempe, AZ 85287-0102
Phone: (480) 965-2374
|3||Northern Arizona University
Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders
Address: PO Box 15045, Flagstaff, AZ 86011
Phone: (928) 523-2969
For the Indians to Phoenix
Phoenix, located in the southwestern United States, is the eighth largest city in the United States with an area of 1,230.5 km2 and also the capital of the arid state of Arizona. Today, about 2 million people live here, many of whom are descendants of the original Native American tribes.
The city’s Indian past is evident at almost every turn. The unique atmosphere of old times breathes here. In the Navajo Indian language, the city was called Hoozdo, which means “hot place.” Phoenix is located in the Sonoran Desert, in the Salt River Valley, sometimes called the “Valley of the Sun”. The western part of the city is interwoven with the flow of the river Salt. Phoenix is surrounded on all sides by mountain ranges such as the McDowell Mountains, the White Tank Mountains, the Superstition Mountains and the Sierra Estrella.
Phoenix is also the county seat of Maricopa County, officially consisting of 15 boroughs, but is commonly divided into seven main areas. Phoenix is located in a place that is considered one of the warmest in the world – not counting the Middle East. During peak summer, temperatures here normally exceed 40 ° C and in winter they rarely fall below 18 ° C, so snow is almost non-existent here. The temperature record here was measured in July 1990, when the temperature climbed to an unbearable 50 ° C. In addition, statistics show that you will experience 300 sunny days a year here. May is considered the rainiest month.
In the past, the territory of today’s city was inhabited by the Hohokam Indian tribe, which contributed to the construction of a network of irrigation canals. He was able to turn dry and barren land into agriculturally usable land. In total, about 200 km of these canals were built, some of which were used in modern times to build the Arizona Canal, the Central Arizona Project Canal and the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct. The frequent alternation of dry seasons with floods eventually caused the well-developed Hohokam tribe to eventually disappear. Phoenix itself was founded in 1871 and in 1889 became the capital of Arizona.
Phoenix experienced its greatest prosperity during the second half of World War II. At that time, there was a significant influx of people, mainly due to the construction of Luke Air Force Base and many new job opportunities. Large aerospace companies such as Honeywell, electronics electronics and Phelps Dodge Mineral Corporation were established. While in 1930 there were about 48,000 inhabitants, in 1950 the census found 106,818 people and in 1960 even four times, ie almost 440,000 inhabitants. The turn of the 20th and 21st centuries was marked by the massive development of the surrounding cities of the agglomeration and the constant increase in the number of inhabitants.
Lovers of Native American cultures in particular will enjoy a walk in today’s Phoenix. Places such as the Pueblo Grande Museum, the Desert Botanical Garden or the Indian Heard Museum on Central Avenue have become some of the biggest tourist attractions. In the Heard Museum you will learn about the history, spirituality and wisdom of the original Indians of this country. You can see a lot of preserved Indian treasures. There are a hundred Indian “ducks” on display, which are dance masks and puppets symbolizing the souls of the dead. You can also see a sample of the structure of Native American dwellings. The history of this unique culture, which underwent one of the greatest Holocaustists in history, will also be explained to you.
Many visitors may be tempted by a tour of the famous millionaire Paradise Valley, home to some of the most expensive private buildings in the world. Phoenix is also a sports center and home to a number of well-known sports teams. The most famous is, of course, the Phoenix Coyotes hockey club. Basketball, American football and baseball teams are also well represented here.
About 50 km north of Phoenix is a 24,000-acre Indian reservation in the Sonoran Desert. The Yavapai Indians, or “People of the Red Mountain,” live here. He is one of the original Indian tribes who never stopped fighting for their rights and freedoms. It was one of the most numerous tribes during the settlement of Central Arizona, but unlike the fighting Apaches, this tribe was peaceful. Unfortunately, the white settlers did not see any differences between the Indians, so they decided to kill everyone according to the motto “dead Indian – good Indian”. Today, the descendants of this unique tribe with amazing culture and traditions live in the reserve.
In the 1960s, however, they were threatened with losing the last piece of land allotted to them. The government decided to build a dam on the Verde River, which was to flood most of their reservation. The Indians were offered compensation, but they refused. They have a very strong bond with the land, they even call it their mother. Fortunately, however, the majority of the Arizona population stood up to the Indians, there were many strikes and protests until the whole project was finally canceled in 1981. To commemorate this victory, the Indians hold a several-day ceremony each year, which includes Pow-wow, an Indian rodeo, various competitions and tournaments. This is how the tradition called Orme Dam Victory Days came about. No visitor to the southwestern United States should miss a visit to the festivities.