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Psychoanalytic Treatment Method
In the 1880s, Austrian physician Josef Breuer discovered that so-called hysterical symptoms may be due to traumatic experiences that seem ” unconscious “. In hypnosis interrogation, the patient may be able to recall previously forgotten experiences, to respond to displaced feelings and to get rid of the symptoms in such a “cleansing” (catharsis).
Breuer’s work was continued by Sigmund Freud. He cited hypnosis as an overly inadequate tool and instead tried to make patients remember the sickening impressions by energetic influence in the waking state. During these trials, he noted that there was a clear resistance to recall. He concluded that this resistance was due to the traumatic nature of the memory, and that it was the same force that manifested itself in the resistance, which in his time had caused the impressions to be forgotten. This active oblivion called Freud displacement. He perceived the displacement as a result of a conflict that is not settled in the normal way by conscious choices.
It displaces all its energy (via cathexis), but, because of the threshold of consciousness, there are defense mechanisms, can only be applied by detours. It is believed that the neurotic symptoms are produced in the interaction between the suppressed and the suppressive forces. The doctrine of the displacement became the core of Freud’s new conception. The goal of the treatment of neurotic diseases was to dissolve the disease-causing displacements and replace them with conscious decisions and the freedom inherent in knowing themselves and their patterns.
To achieve this goal, Freud devised an entirely new method which he himself called psychoanalysis, and the basic principle being the free associations. In the presence of the analyst, the patient (the analyst) should “let the thoughts run” as freely as possible and tell about the “incidents” that arise regardless of whether they seem stupid, obscene, rude or similar. The patient lies on his back, often on a couch, with the therapist sitting behind, out of sight. Of particular importance is the material the analysts bring to their dreams. The emotions that are triggered during treatment are crucial to the analysis. The analyst directs strong, emotional reactions to the analyst, reactions that seem to have been latent from childhood and are related to feelings associated with the parents. In this, the transfer comes forgotten childhood conflicts and emotional reactions for a day. Freud’s processing of the transfer became gradually central to the analytical method.
Many analysts still use the technique developed by Freud, while others have modified the method, in part very radically. Freud himself expanded the scope of psychoanalysis to include anxiety neurosis, anxiety hysteria (phobias), forced neurosis and several other conditions. Later, other forms, such as various character disorders and adaptation difficulties, were also introduced. In-depth treatment takes a very long time, often many years, and does not always progress. Psychoanalytic technique is part of several treatment methods and must be regarded as fundamental to modern psychotherapy.
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Address: 6207 Moore Hall, Hanover, NH 03755
Phone: (603) 646-3181
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|2||University of New Hampshire
Address: Library Way, Durham, NH 03824
Phone: (603) 862-2360
|Department of Psychology|
Related to New Hampshire
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