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Individual psychology is the study of the individual’s experiences and behaviors. The term is also used for a direction in psychology, founded by Alfred Adler.
In short, Adler believed that neuroses occur in people who feel socially inferior, either because of bodily or other deficiencies, or by unfortunate upbringing or sibling position. The inferiority complex and overcompensation are loan words from Adler that have entered the everyday language.
The emphasis he placed on environmental impact and the value of self-activity to get out of neurosis makes Adler a precursor to views that have been advanced in today’s psychology.
In older psychology, folk psychology was a designation for the study of various peoples psychological characteristics. The German nationalism in the 1800s gave the term “people” of great significance, and about 1860 was the so-called folk psychology, founded by ethnologist Moritz Lazarus and philologist Heymann Steinthal and the philosopher and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt as its foremost representative. People’s psychology meant to find the peoples soul, Volksgeist, through studies of language, customs and customs, literature and mythology, religion, art and law.
In recent psychology one can find the term used in a completely different meaning, about lay people’s psychological “theories” and intuitive conceptions of psychological concepts, as expressed in everyday language, among other things.
Existence psychology is a psychological direction that is based on the philosophy of existence. It has partly emerged as a reaction to positivist, scientifically oriented psychological directions. The psychology of existence is based on the individual’s existential situation, that is, the individual’s experience relationship to his or her surroundings, his fellow humans, his past and future, and himself. At the same time, greater emphasis is placed on concepts such as authenticity (authenticity), responsibility, freedom, choice and meaning.
Particularly in clinical psychology, existential psychological approaches have been seen as a corrective to the more traditional forms of psychotherapy (see Existence Analysis). Existence psychology tries to avoid the classic doctor / patient relationship, which has its role in medicine. One element of this is not to consider adaptation disorders as mental “diseases” of an organism.
Prominent representatives of the psychology of existence are the Belgians Eugène Minkowski, the Swiss Ludwig Binswanger and Medard Boss, the Austrian Viktor Frankl and the American Irvin D. Yalom.
Egop psychology is a direction within psychoanalytically influenced psychology that denotes the ego’s role (in theory and practice) in controlling impulses and mastering. The most well-known representative of this field of clinical psychology and psychiatry was American Harry Stack Sullivan.
Egop psychology to some extent influenced Norwegian psychiatry and psychology. In our day, interest has gradually shifted from egopsychology to object relationship theory.
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