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Individual psychology is the study of the individual’s experiences and behaviors. The term is also used for a direction in psychology, founded by Alfred Adler.
In short, Adler believed that neuroses occur in people who feel socially inferior, either because of bodily or other deficiencies, or by unfortunate upbringing or sibling position. The inferiority complex and overcompensation are loan words from Adler that have entered the everyday language.
The emphasis he placed on environmental impact and the value of self-activity to get out of neurosis makes Adler a precursor to views that have been advanced in today’s psychology.
In older psychology, folk psychology was a designation for the study of various peoples psychological characteristics. The German nationalism in the 1800s gave the term “people” of great significance, and about 1860 was the so-called folk psychology, founded by ethnologist Moritz Lazarus and philologist Heymann Steinthal and the philosopher and psychologist Wilhelm Wundt as its foremost representative. People’s psychology meant to find the peoples soul, Volksgeist, through studies of language, customs and customs, literature and mythology, religion, art and law.
In recent psychology one can find the term used in a completely different meaning, about lay people’s psychological “theories” and intuitive conceptions of psychological concepts, as expressed in everyday language, among other things.
Existence psychology is a psychological direction that is based on the philosophy of existence. It has partly emerged as a reaction to positivist, scientifically oriented psychological directions. The psychology of existence is based on the individual’s existential situation, that is, the individual’s experience relationship to his or her surroundings, his fellow humans, his past and future, and himself. At the same time, greater emphasis is placed on concepts such as authenticity (authenticity), responsibility, freedom, choice and meaning.
Particularly in clinical psychology, existential psychological approaches have been seen as a corrective to the more traditional forms of psychotherapy (see Existence Analysis). Existence psychology tries to avoid the classic doctor / patient relationship, which has its role in medicine. One element of this is not to consider adaptation disorders as mental “diseases” of an organism.
Prominent representatives of the psychology of existence are the Belgians Eugène Minkowski, the Swiss Ludwig Binswanger and Medard Boss, the Austrian Viktor Frankl and the American Irvin D. Yalom.
Egop psychology is a direction within psychoanalytically influenced psychology that denotes the ego’s role (in theory and practice) in controlling impulses and mastering. The most well-known representative of this field of clinical psychology and psychiatry was American Harry Stack Sullivan.
Egop psychology to some extent influenced Norwegian psychiatry and psychology. In our day, interest has gradually shifted from egopsychology to object relationship theory.
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Related to Alaska
- Countryaah.com helps you locate each county in Alaska. Here, you can find alphabetical list of all counties in the state of Alaska.
Glacier Bay NP&P
Glacier Bay National Park, located along the shores of Canada, is known as the Ice Pearl of Alaska. It covers an area of 13,287 square kilometers and was founded in 1925. Today, the park protects mainly wild and untouched nature with the most famous glacier Muir Glacier. The largest glaciers include Harding or Brady Glacier, which extends into Taylor Bay.
The original inhabitants of the area of today’s national park were the Tlingit Indians, who lived here about 300 years ago. British Captain George Vancouver was the first European to visit the area in 1794. If you want to go to a national park, you must secure a plane or a good boat. There is no land road. However, over the last 200 years, the coast has changed significantly, making places that were once inaccessible accessible. Today it is possible to enter the fjord more than 100 km long.
Glacier Bay National Park has a total of nine glaciers, some of which reach as far as the ocean, where they form glacier walls up to 60 meters high. Today, you can watch more and more huge pieces of ice break away from them. This process results in global warming and melting glaciers. Scientists call this area a “natural laboratory.” It is suitable for exploring glaciers, flora and fauna.
In the national park you can observe various species of animals, the increasing amount of vegetation here creates the conditions for the life of many mammals. For example, wolves, moose, black and brown bears, mountain goats and deer can be seen here. In total, the park has become home to more than 40 species of mammals and 220 species of birds. The local waters are rich in plankton, which is why whales stay here, which attract human attention. Many species of fish, especially salmon, are also doing well. Common seals are grouped on glaciers, which are a frequent and popular food for killer whales, which have no natural enemy and are able to swim at speeds of up to 46 km / h.
The southern end of the bay is increasingly overgrown with spruce stands, as it was last glaciated 200 years ago. The slopes are overgrown with alders, willows and mosses. To the north, the spruces are declining and are being replaced by sparse vegetation. The landscape is generally harsher.