According to A2zdirectory, the appearance of the widow of R. Gandhi had aroused great enthusiasm in the INC (I). Born in the province of Vicenza, Sonia Maino married Rajiv in 1968 and took Indian citizenship in 1983; in the aftermath of her husband’s death, her entry into politics had been advocated by those who wished for the continuation of a dynastic tradition that saw a member of the Nehru – Gandhi family at the helm of the Congress Party. However, his commitment to revitalize a party in crisis of consensus did not translate into electoral success in the early elections of February-March 1998, in which the INC (I) substantially maintained its positions. The United Front was heavily defeated and the BJP confirmed its growth which, thanks to the adoption of a more open attitude, had forged a series of alliances, thus overcoming its typically regional connotation; particularly important for the purposes of forming a new majority was the agreement with Aiadmk, a rising party in Tamil Nadu. The leadership of the government was assumed by Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the BJP. The new prime minister, a parliamentarian for many legislatures, already active during the liberation struggle, although considered a moderate and despite having represented the most pragmatic and less ideological face of the BJP during the electoral campaign, remained one of the most convinced supporters of the importance of a recovery of Hindu culture both as a factor of national identity in relation to Westernizing tendencies, and as a recognition of its pre-eminence over other cultures and other religions. The political choices and declarations of the government appeared from the beginning characterized by strong nationalistic accents and by a foreign policy with aggressive and declamatory tones, which reaffirmed the role of India as a regional power and aimed at increasing the consensus on the government’s work.. Tension in the area immediately increased and relations with Pakistan, which had always been in conflict, worsened further to the point of breaking up, while the military confrontation in Kashmir underwent a violent acceleration in spring-summer 1999 and the fighting became more bitter. In an increasingly heated climate, the government resumed nuclear tests after 24 years with a series of underground explosions, sparking a wave of renewed Hindu nationalism. but provoking both the condemnation of public opinion and international diplomacy, and the response, with as many nuclear tests, of Pakistan. In April 1999, the abandonment of the coalition by the Aiadmk led to the resignation of the government and the calling of new elections.
Held in September-October 1999, the consultations again recorded the victory of the BJP, at the head of an alliance of numerous parties, and the defeat of the INC (I), and led to the formation of a new coalition government still led by Vajpayee.. The nationalist and Hindu inspiration of Vajpayee’s policy was strengthened, albeit within a strategy of rapprochement with the United States, consolidated after the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001, when India became part of the counter-terrorism front led by the same United States. Belonging to the same international group did not alleviate the tension with Pakistan: in Kashmir the gun battles between the two armies deployed along the border resumed and there was a resurgence of terrorist attacks, while for the armed attacks on the Parliament of New Delhi (December 2001) and the American Center in Kolkata (January 2002), attributed to Islamic groups, the Indian government again accused Pakistan of financing terrorism. In March 2002, the conflict between Hindus and Muslims re-erupted in the western and northern states, causing dozens of deaths, especially among the latter. Faced with the worsening of the situation, Vajpayee launched a campaign aimed at improving relations with Muslims and, in August 2003, promoted a new peace initiative with Pakistan, which was also welcomed by the political leaders of Europe and States. United. 2003 was also marked by a strong acceleration of Indian economic growth, reinforcing a trend already active since the early 1990s. Under the pressure of the reforms promoted by the Vajpayee government, GDP has since risen at record rates, jobs have grown, especially for young skilled workers, and the development of the IT and high-level industries has intensified. technology, while the modernization of large urban realities has become the most evident symbol of a rapidly changing country. The increased popularity of the government, a consequence of the good results obtained in diplomacy and economic policy, together with the regained political stability, in January 2004 induced Vajpayee to dissolve Parliament early, in an attempt to exploit the favorable situation to strengthen his party. The consensus of the new urban middle classes was not, however, sufficient to guarantee victory for the BJP in the elections which,
Manmohan Singh, the first member of the Sikh community to reach the top of the federal state, took office after the resignation of Sonia Gandhi, although entitled to run as president of the parliamentary group of the INC (I). Economist, with considerable experience acquired in the direction of the Reserve Bank of India and in his posts at the International Monetary Fund, from 1991 to 1996 Singh was Minister of Finance in the Rao government, whose privatization and liberalization policy was the main inspiration. and creator.