Climate and Geography of Russia


Russia (Russian Federation) – a country located in the eastern part of Europe and in the northern part of Asia, occupies a third of the territory of the Eurasian continent. The largest country in the world by area. The extreme mainland points of the country: in the north – Cape Chelyuskin on the Taimyr Peninsula, in the east – Cape Dezhnev in Chukotka, in the south – the area south-west of Mount Bazarduzu, in the west – the Gdansk Bay of the Baltic Sea on the Baltic Spit. See Russia abbreviations.

The territory of Russia stretches from north to south for more than 4,000 km, and from west to east for almost 10,000 km. The geographical center of the country is considered to be a point on the territory of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, which is near the southeastern outskirts of Lake Vivi.

Russia has about 60.933 km of borders with other countries. Neighboring countries along the land border: Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, Finland, Ukraine, Belarus, Georgia, Estonia, Azerbaijan, Latvia, Abkhazia, Lithuania, Poland, Norway, South Ossetia, North Korea. The country has maritime borders with the USA and Japan.

The largest plains of the country: East European (Russian) and West Siberian. The largest mountain systems of Russia: the Caucasus Mountains (the highest point of the country and Europe – Mount Elbrus – 5642 m), the Ural Mountains (the highest point – Mount Narodnaya – 1895 m), the Altai Mountains (the highest point – Mount Belukha 4506 m), the Baikal Mountains (the highest point – BAM peak – 3072 m), mountains of the Far East (the highest point – Klyuchevskaya Sopka volcano – 4750 m).

Russia is washed by 3 oceans: the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean. Seas of Russia: Black Sea, Baltic Sea, Sea of Azov, Barents Sea, White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian Sea, Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Sea of ​​Okhotsk, Sea of Japan, Caspian Sea. The largest river arteries of the country: Volga, Ob, Amur, Lena, Yenisei, Irtysh and others. Picturesque lakes of Russia: Baikal (the deepest lake on the planet), Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, Taimyr and many others.

Administratively, the Russian Federation is divided into 83 subjects, of which 21 are republics, 46 regions, 9 territories, 4 autonomous districts and 1 autonomous region.

Since March 28, 2010 Russia has 9 time zones: Kaliningrad time (UTC+3, MSK-1), Moscow time (UTC+4), Yekaterinburg time (UTC+6, MSK+2), Omsk time (UTC+7, MSK+3), Krasnoyarsk time (UTC+8, MSK+4), Irkutsk time (UTC+9, MSK+5), Yakutsk time (UTC+10, MSK+6), Vladivostok time (UTC+10, MSK+ 7) and Magadan time (UTC+12, MSK+8).


According to 800zipcodes, four climatic zones dominate on the territory of Russia – temperate (most of the country), arctic and subarctic (northern continental regions and islands of the Arctic Ocean), subtropical (Black Sea coast of the Caucasus).

January is considered the coldest month in Russia, its climatic norm for the country is approximately -19.7 ° С. The warmest month is July, its climatic norm is approximately +15.6 °С.

The country is characterized by low average rainfall. For most of Russia, a characteristic phenomenon is the presence of snow cover for several months from late autumn to early spring.

Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine is widely popular all over the world. National Russian dishes are very diverse and have features depending on the region of the country. Russian cuisine also includes national dishes of the countries of the former USSR and borrowings from other national cuisines.

Common products: cereals (wheat, rye, barley, buckwheat, etc.), vegetables (potatoes, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, etc.), meat (beef, pork, chicken), dairy products (milk, butter, cheese, cottage cheese, sour cream), fish (perch, bream, crucian carp, minnow, etc.) as well as eggs, mushrooms and other products.

In addition, in the preparation of many dishes in Russia, spices and seasonings are used: onion, garlic, dill, parsley, horseradish and others.

Russian national dishes:

  • Soups. The peculiarities of the climate gave rise to people’s need for hot high-calorie food, so soups are very popular in Russia. For example, cabbage soup, pickle, ear, botvinya and cold okroshka soup.
  • Kashi. The traditional second hot dish in Russia is porridge: buckwheat, oatmeal, millet, barley, semolina.
  • Meat dishes. Diverse, known throughout the country. Meat in Russia is subjected to heat treatment in various ways. The most popular meat dishes are cutlets, sausage, aspic (jelly), meatloaf, boiled beef, roast veal, meat pate, meat snacks and many others.
  • Fish dishes. Fish in Russian cuisine is prepared in various ways: boiled, fried, baked, stewed, steamed. They also eat dried, dried and salted fish. Foreigners consider caviar to be a typical Russian dish.
  • Vegetable dishes. Vegetables in Russia are eaten raw, boiled, baked, steamed, salted, pickled and soaked. Potatoes are especially popular in the country, from which many different dishes can be prepared: boiled, stewed and fried potatoes, mashed potatoes, potato stew and others.
  • Dairy dishes and snacks: butter, sour cream, cheese, cottage cheese and dairy products.
  • Flour products. One of the most popular flour products in the country is bread. It is used both separately and in combination with other dishes. In addition, dumplings made from dough and minced meat are widely known in the country.

Russian national desserts: pancakes, gingerbread, kalachi, jams, honey, fruits and berries.

Of the non-alcoholic drinks in Russia, kvass, fruit drinks, sbiten, tea and coffee (borrowed from other countries) are popular.

Vodka is traditionally distinguished from Russian alcoholic drinks, as well as beer, mead. In addition, wine and cognac are produced in Russia.

Russian cuisine

About the author