Climate and Geography of Nepal


Nepal is a small mountainous country in Asia, located between the two largest Asian countries – China and India. The country stretches along the Great Himalayan Range for 650 kilometers. In terms of area, Nepal occupies approximately 150,000 km 2. See Nepal abbreviations.

Nepal has no access to the sea. On the north side, the country borders on Tibet (Autonomous Region of China ), on the south side it is surrounded by Indian states.

Despite its small size, the territory of the country has a very diverse relief. From north to south, the territory begins to rise from 250 meters to the very peaks of the Himalayan range, reaching a height of more than 8,000 meters. The country has clearly defined three physical-geographical zones that run parallel and replace each other from south to north: the Himalayas, the middle mountains and the flat Terai.

The Terai flat region is located along the Indian border. Terai is the northern tip of the Indo-Gangetic lowland, reaching a width of 20-40 kilometers. From the south, the flat area is located at an altitude of 300 meters, to the north it rises to a height of 1000 meters to the Sivalik ridge. There are several valleys in Terai: in the central part – Rapti, in the western part – Dang and Surket.

The humid and hot climate of the Terai region favors the formation of swampy and impenetrable jungles in places. This strip of jungle served for a long time as a barrier to the country from India. The main rivers of this region are Narayani, Koshi and Karnali, which during the rainy season are one of the causes of floods.

Sivalik is a fairly rounded and gently sloping mountain range, the slopes of which are used for agriculture. To the north there is a decrease, which is called the internal Terai. Behind them originates the Mahabharat range, reaching a height of up to 3,000 meters. Between it and the Himalayan range is an inner fertile valley, where the Kathmandu Valley, one of the most developed and densely populated regions of Nepal, is located.

Mount Everest is the highest point in the world, located on the border with Tibet. The mountain reaches a height of 8,848 meters. The highlands are covered with snow for almost the entire year.


According to 800zipcodes, there are five natural climatic zones in Nepal. In areas below 1,200 meters, there is a subtropical and tropical zone – the Terai region. Areas located at an altitude of 1,200 to 2,400 meters are in the temperate zone – the Kathmandu Valley, the Mahabharat Valley and Sivalik. Areas located at an altitude of 2,400 – 3,600 meters are located in a cold climate zone – the foothills of the Himalayan ranges, the Mahabharat range. The Himalayas themselves are dominated by two climatic zones – arctic and subarctic.

The climate of the Terai region has a monsoon character. The rainy season is from June to September. On average, precipitation falls from 1,400 to 1,900 mm per year. Most of the year the area is very hot. The average temperature in January is +21…+23 0 С, in July up to +36 0 С.

The climate in the midlands also has monsoon features. The rainy season is from June to September. On average, precipitation falls from 1,000 to 4,000 mm per year. The middle mountains are the coolest in contrast to the Terai, the average temperature in January is +16… +20 0 С, in July up to +28 0 С.

In the highlands, the influence of the monsoon weakens, and in the regions of the Arctic and subarctic zones, it ceases to be felt at all. On average, precipitation falls from 250 to 600 mm per year, depending on the height and topography. A characteristic feature of the region are cold winters, the temperature in January is +3… +7 0 C, at night it drops to -6 0 C. In summer, the average temperature is +15… +19 0 C.

Major cities in Nepal: Patan, Kathmandu, Bhaktapur.

Geography of Nepal

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