Climate and Geography of Jamaica


Jamaica is an island nation located in the western Caribbean Sea, 144 km south of the Cuban coast. Jamaica is the third largest island in the Greater Antilles, after Cuba and Haiti. It has water borders with Cuba and Haiti, and the point of the continent closest to Jamaica is the Nicaraguan Cape Gracias a Dios. See Jamaica abbreviations.

Jamaica is bordered on all sides by the waters of the Caribbean Sea.

The capital of Jamaica is the city of Kingston, which combines the functions of the main economic and cultural center, as well as the main port of Jamaica.

The total area of the island is 10,991 sq. km., and the total length of the coastline is 1022 km.

About two thirds of the surface of the island of Jamaica is a limestone plateau with altitudes from 500 to 1000 m, in some places a little higher. The Blue Mountains are located in the east of the country, which also includes the highest point in Jamaica – Mount Blue Mountain with a height of 2256 m.

The southwest is marked by Mt. Malvern (725 m high) and the western areas by Mt. Dolphin Head (545 m). In addition, the western part of Jamaica is distinguished by karst landforms, represented by the mountains John Crow, Dry Harbor, as well as the Cockpit Country karst basin, spread over 1300 square meters. km. The latter consists of a series of low hills and narrow valleys between them, sinkholes and underground watercourses.

The southern and western shores of the island are characterized by alluvial lowlands. On the south coast there are many reef-fringed harbors (for example, at Kingston), and on the west one can find long sandy beaches. A number of beaches are located on the rocky northern coast.

Forests occupy 194 thousand hectares of Jamaica, i.e. fifth of the country. The most common crops are cottonwood, ebony, bamboo, Caribbean pine and eucalyptus. Savanna vegetation can be found in the west and southwest. As for the fauna, it does not differ in diversity: small rodents, rabbits, mongooses, various types of turtles, snakes, crocodiles and iguanas. Birds are the most diverse, there are about 250 species on the island.

The water resources of Jamaica are represented by a huge number of streams and rivers with sources in the central highlands. It is not for nothing that the name Jamaica is a distorted Indian word “haimaka”, meaning “island of springs”, “land of streams”. The total volume of water resources is 9.4 km³. The longest river is the Minho with a length of 93 km. The Black River in the west of the country and the Rio Cobre near Kingston are also worth mentioning. Only the Black River has a navigable ability, and even then a small one.


According to 800zipcodes, the climate of Jamaica can be described as tropical trade winds, with high humidity. Winter and summer temperatures on the island are high and almost equal. However, in coastal areas, the air warms up more strongly – here the heat is +24…+35 °C. Temperatures in mountainous areas are +15…+27 °C. Water throughout the year is warmed up to an average of + 24… + 26 ° C.

Precipitation is seasonal, with most of it occurring between May and October. During the year, an average of 2100 mm of precipitation falls on the land of Jamaica, but these data are very dependent on the region of the country. Thus, the norm of the southern coast is 635 mm, and the northeastern mountains of John Crow can receive 7600 mm of precipitation per year.

Heat and humidity are not so difficult to endure due to the constant sea breeze, which gives coolness. In the summer-autumn period, tropical hurricanes occur in Jamaica, and in winter, cold streams even come here from North America.

Capital: Kingston.

Beach resorts: Ocho Rios, Montego Bay, Negril, Port Antonio, White House Bay, Rannaway Bay.

Jamaican cuisine

National Jamaican cuisine has absorbed many culinary traditions from other countries: Spain, England, India and China. African cuisine was especially influenced by it.

Common Ingredients: Vegetables (cassava, breadfruit, peppers, and others), meat (poultry, goat, pork), fish and seafood (cod, mackerel, shrimp), fruits (bananas, coconuts, pineapples), including fruit unknown to us: ackee (added to many national dishes), guineps, sweetsops, paw-paws, star apple.

For cooking, Jamaicans actively use spices: curry, Jamaican pepper, small hot Scotch bonnet pepper, cardamom, thyme, ginger, nutmeg, garlic, young calaloo sprouts that look like spinach (used for soups, vegetable stews, rolls). All spices are used not only separately, but also together in the famous Jamaican Pickapeppa Sauce. The sauce recipe is kept secret.

In Jamaica you can try:

  • Goat curry is a hallmark of Jamaican cuisine. The masterful use of spices in this dish can be appreciated in the national restaurants of the island.
  • An old Jamaican dish is Manish water. It is served at traditional festivities and rituals. The dish is prepared from goat meat (head and legs), yams, bananas, pepper and white rum are added to it.
  • Soup “Cows Cod” is very satisfying. He was always loved by warriors and athletes. The secret of the dish lies in a special variety of cod. It is also prepared with yams, peppers, bananas and rum.
  • Jamaican stew with chocho fruits.
  • Meat is considered a traditional product on the island. Dried meat was learned to cook by local slaves who fled from the owners. The meat was marinated with different varieties of peppers and cooked on a fire bred on fragrant wood. Grilled chicken with pepper sauce is also popular. Of the English dishes on the island, meat pies became popular.
  • The islanders are happy to treat tourists with their favorite seafood dishes: dried and dried shrimp with pepper, pies stuffed with salted fish, mackerel stewed with tomato and onion in coconut milk. Mackerel is served with green bananas and sweet potatoes in almost all traditional Jamaican restaurants.
  • Jamaican chefs prepare grilled pig, smoked fish with mango marinade, dried lamb with guava from delicacies.
  • Of the desserts in the country, they love “matrimony”. It is made from exotic fruits, condensed milk and citrus pulp. Another famous dessert is a banana and coconut pie, which is steamed.

Jamaicans regale tourists with soft drinks ” Malta ” (with honey flavor), refreshing “skyjuice” with crushed ice and freshly squeezed juices. Very strong coffee is drunk on the island. If desired, cardamom or rum is added to it.

Of the alcoholic beverages in Jamaica, rum is world famous. It produces dark rum with pronounced taste qualities. Popular brands of rum “Maers” and “Appleton”. Locals love light beers: Real Rock Lager and Red Stripe. This beer is brewed in traditional ways. Undoubtedly, it is interesting to evaluate the local ginger beer.

Jamaican cuisine

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