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Top Psychology Schools in New Jersey

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Psychoanalytic Theory

The application of the new method provided experiences that were of significant importance for the understanding of normal psychological development. In addition to the doctrine of the unconscious, the doctrine of the importance of early childhood for later experiences and behaviors is the most central. "Forgotten" childhood conflicts seem unconscious in humans, and largely determine the reactions later in life.

The formulation of Freud's theories was determined by his conception of the dominant role of sexual drive for the psyche. He called libido the power of sexual drive, and this concept became central to further psychoanalytic theory formation. In children, libido manifests itself through pleasure experiences in connection with so-called erogenous zones. Development takes place through the so-called oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital stages up to puberty (see child sexuality). In the fall stage, the child's libido is believed to be part of certain relationships with the parents. Of particular importance in this regard is the so-called oedipus complex and thus the continuous castration complex, both of which play a major role in psychoanalytic theory. These complexes cause strong ambivalence in the child's feelings towards the parents. The child's working life is more or less suppressed as it has to adapt to society's demands. In the battle between the oppressive forces and the original operating trends, the personality is formed. A key factor here is the ability to sublimate, that is, to use the operating energy for other, "higher" targets. In the neuroticist, sublimation is prevented by early, strong displacements.

Over time, Freud's teachings underwent many changes. To begin with, he counted on two main groups of drives: the sexual drives and the self-drives (or self-sustaining drives). Later he became convinced that the aggression is of far more fundamental importance than he had previously thought. He introduced a new division of the basic drives, on the one hand, sexual drive in the broadest sense, eros, on the other, the death drive, thanatos. In his later writings he also operates with a more differentiated view of the structure of soul life. He distinguishes between I (ego), the consciously perceiving, choosing and acting body, the superego, the bearer of the conscience, and the id., the obscure, inaccessible, operational part of the personality.

While many analysts still hold on to Freud's theories rather dogmatically, others have a more or less divergent view. Many theoretical contributions have also been made. A couple of Freud's best-known early pupils, Alfred Adler and Carl Gustav Jung, broke up with Freud after a period of collaboration and formed their own "directions", individual psychology and analytical psychology. The so-called neo-Freudians (for example, Karen Horney and Erich Fromm) built on Freud's basic view, but had several divergent views. Among other things, they placed less emphasis on biological (instinctive) and greater emphasis on social factors in psychological development. An important contribution was alsoAnna Freud's detection of a number of defense and defense mechanisms that are important in neuroscience and character development (for example, reaction formation, projection, fixation and regression).

In modern psychoanalytic theory, less emphasis has been placed on the oedipus conflict as crucial for character formation, while pre-dipole conflicts and ego development are given greater importance. Key theorists are Margaret Mahler (18971985), who is particularly concerned with the evolution from mother-child symbiosis to autonomy, and Heinz Kohut (1913-1981), who is concerned with self-development and narcissistic conflicts. The work of the French analyst Jacques-Marie Lacan forms the basis for a deconstructivist postmodernist direction in modern psychoanalytic theory.

Freud has by far founded modern psychotherapy and personality theory. However, only parts of his theories have found empirical support. The doctrine of the unconscious and the importance of the emotional climate between therapist and client is possibly his most important contribution to psychology.

Top Psychology Schools in New Jersey
Rankings Psychology Programs Departments and Schools
1 Princeton University
Address: Green Hall, Princeton, NJ 08540-1010
Phone: (609) 258-4442
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://webscript.princeton.edu/~psych/psychology/grad/main/index.php
Department of Psychology
2 Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey - New Brunswick
Address: 152 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8020
Phone: (732) 445-2576
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://psych.rutgers.edu/graduate/
Department of Psychology
3 Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey - Newark
Address: 101 Warren Street, Newark, NJ 07102
Phone: (973) 353-5440
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.psych.rutgers.edu/graduate.html
Department of Psychology
4 Fairleigh Dickinson University
Address: 1000 River Road, Teaneck, NJ 07666
Phone: (201) 692-2300
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://ucoll.fdu.edu/psychology/psyhome.html
School of Psychology
5 Seton Hall University
Address: 400 S. Orange Avenue , South Orange, NJ 07079
Phone: (973) 761-9430
E-mail: [email protected]
Website: http://www.shu.edu/academics/artsci/ms-psychology/index.cfm
Department of Psychology
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